CONCLUSION: ADEQUATE LEVEL OF PROTECTION FOR PERSONAL DATA TRANSFERRED FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION TO BUSINESS OPERATORS IN JAPAN
The Commission considers that the APPI as complemented by the Supplementary Rules contained in Annex I, together with the official representations, assurances and commitments contained in Annex II, ensure a level of protection for personal data transferred from the European Union that is essentially equivalent to the one guaranteed by Regulation (EU) 2016/679.
Moreover, the Commission considers that, taken as a whole, the oversight mechanisms and redress avenues in Japanese law enable infringements by recipient PIHBOs to be identified and punished in practice and offer legal remedies to the data subject to obtain access to personal data relating to him/her and, eventually, the rectification or erasure of such data.
Finally, on the basis of the available information about the Japanese legal order, including the representations, assurances and commitments from the Japanese government contained in Annex II, the Commission considers that any interference with the fundamental rights of the individuals whose personal data are transferred from the European Union to Japan by Japanese public authorities for public interest purposes, in particular criminal law enforcement and national security purposes, will be limited to what is strictly necessary to achieve the legitimate objective in question, and that effective legal protection against such interference exists.
Therefore, in the light of the findings of this Decision, the Commission considers that Japan ensures an adequate level of protection for personal data transferred from the European Union to PIHBOs in Japan that are subject to the APPI, except in those cases where the recipient falls within one of the categories listed in Article 76(1) APPI and all or part of the purposes of processing correspond(s) to one of the purposes prescribed in that provision.
On this basis, the Commission concludes that the adequacy standard of Article 45 of Regulation (EU) 2016/679, interpreted in light of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, in particular in the Schrems judgment (146), is met.