Data accuracy and minimisation
Data should be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date. It should also be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purposes for which it is processed.
These principles are ensured in Japanese law by Article 16(1) of the APPI, which prohibits the handling of personal information beyond "the necessary scope to achieve a utilisation purpose". As explained by the PPC, this not only excludes the use of data that is not adequate and the excessive use of data (beyond what is necessary for achieving the utilisation purpose), but also entails the prohibition to handle data not relevant for the achievement of the utilisation purpose.
As concerns the obligation to keep data accurate and up to date, Article 19 of the APPI requires the PIHBO to "strive to keep personal data accurate and up-to-date within the scope necessary to achieve a utilisation purpose". That provision should be read together with Article 16(1) of the APPI: according to the explanations received from the PPC, if a PIHBO fails to meet the prescribed standards of accuracy, the processing of the personal information will not be considered as achieving the utilisation purpose and hence, its handling will become unlawful under Article 16(1).