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Article 5 - Principles relating to processing of personal dataArticle 6 - Lawfulness of processingArticle 7 - Conditions for consentArticle 8 - Conditions applicable to child's consent in relation to information society servicesArticle 9 - Processing of special categories of personal dataArticle 10 - Processing of personal data relating to criminal convictions and offencesArticle 11 - Processing which does not require identification
Section 1 - Transparency and modalitiesArticle 12 - Transparent information, communication and modalities for the exercise of the rights of the data subject
Section 2 - Information and access to personal dataArticle 13 - Information to be provided where personal data are collected from the data subjectArticle 14 - Information to be provided where personal data have not been obtained from the data subjectArticle 15 - Right of access by the data subject
Section 3 - Rectification and erasureArticle 16 - Right to rectificationArticle 17 - Right to erasure (‘right to be forgotten’)Article 18 - Right to restriction of processingArticle 19 - Notification obligation regarding rectification or erasure of personal data or restriction of processingArticle 20 - Right to data portability
Section 4 - Right to object and automated individual decision-makingArticle 21 - Right to objectArticle 22 - Automated individual decision-making, including profiling
Section 5 - RestrictionsArticle 23 - Restrictions
Section 1 - General obligationsArticle 24 - Responsibility of the controllerArticle 25 - Data protection by design and by defaultArticle 26 - Joint controllersArticle 27 - Representatives of controllers or processors not established in the UnionArticle 28 - ProcessorArticle 29 - Processing under the authority of the controller or processorArticle 30 - Records of processing activitiesArticle 31 - Cooperation with the supervisory authority
Section 2 - Security of personal dataArticle 32 - Security of processingArticle 33 - Notification of a personal data breach to the supervisory authorityArticle 34 - Communication of a personal data breach to the data subject
Section 3 - Data protection impact assessment and prior consultationArticle 35 - Data protection impact assessmentArticle 36 - Prior consultation
Section 4 - Dat a protection officerArticle 37 - Designation of the data protection officerArticle 38 - Position of the data protection officerArticle 39 - Tasks of the data protection officer
Section 5 - Codes of conduct and certificationArticle 40 - Codes of conductArticle 41 - Monitoring of approved codes of conductArticle 42 - CertificationArticle 43 - Certification bodies
Article 44 - General principle for transfersArticle 45 - Transfers on the basis of an adequacy decisionArticle 46 - Transfers subject to appropriate safeguardsArticle 47 - Binding corporate rulesArticle 48 - Transfers or disclosures not authorised by Union lawArticle 49 - Derogations for specific situationsArticle 50 - International cooperation for the protection of personal data
Section 1 - Independent statusArticle 51 - Supervisory authorityArticle 52 - IndependenceArticle 53 - General conditions for the members of the supervisory authorityArticle 54 - Rules on the establishment of the supervisory authority
Section 2 - Competence, tasks and powersArticle 55 - CompetenceArticle 56 - Competence of the lead supervisory authorityArticle 57 - TasksArticle 58 - PowersArticle 59 - Activity reports
Section 1 - CooperationArticle 60 - Cooperation between the lead supervisory authority and the other supervisory authorities concernedArticle 61 - Mutual assistanceArticle 62 - Joint operations of supervisory authorities
Section 2 - ConsistencyArticle 63 - Consistency mechanismArticle 64 - Opinion of the BoardArticle 65 - Dispute resolution by the BoardArticle 66 - Urgency procedureArticle 67 - Exchange of information
Section 3 - European data protection boardArticle 68 - European Data Protection BoardArticle 69 - IndependenceArticle 70 - Tasks of the BoardArticle 71 - ReportsArticle 72 - ProcedureArticle 73 - ChairArticle 74 - Tasks of the ChairArticle 75 - SecretariatArticle 76 - Confidentiality
Article 77 - Right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authorityArticle 78 - Right to an effective judicial remedy against a supervisory authorityArticle 79 - Right to an effective judicial remedy against a controller or processorArticle 80 - Representation of data subjectsArticle 81 - Suspension of proceedingsArticle 82 - Right to compensation and liabilityArticle 83 - General conditions for imposing administrative finesArticle 84 - Penalties
Article 85 - Processing and freedom of expression and informationArticle 86 - Processing and public access to official documentsArticle 87 - Processing of the national identification numberArticle 88 - Processing in the context of employmentArticle 89 - Safeguards and derogations relating to processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposesArticle 90 - Obligations of secrecyArticle 91 - Existing data protection rules of churches and religious associations
(39) Any processing of personal data should be lawful and fair. It should be transparent to natural persons that personal data concerning them are collected, used, consulted or otherwise processed and to what extent the personal data are or will be processed. The principle of transparency requires that any information and communication relating to the processing of those personal data be easily accessible and easy to understand, and that clear and plain language be used. That principle concerns, in particular, information to the data subjects on the identity of the controller and the purposes of the processing and further information to ensure fair and transparent processing in respect of the natural persons concerned and their right to obtain confirmation and communication of personal data concerning them which are being processed. Natural persons should be made aware of risks, rules, safeguards and rights in relation to the processing of personal data and how to exercise their rights in relation to such processing. In particular, the specific purposes for which personal data are processed should be explicit and legitimate and determined at the time of the collection of the personal data. The personal data should be adequate, relevant and limited to what is necessary for the purposes for which they are processed. This requires, in particular, ensuring that the period for which the personal data are stored is limited to a strict minimum. Personal data should be processed only if the purpose of the processing could not reasonably be fulfilled by other means. In order to ensure that the personal data are not kept longer than necessary, time limits should be established by the controller for erasure or for a periodic review. Every reasonable step should be taken to ensure that personal data which are inaccurate are rectified or deleted. Personal data should be processed in a manner that ensures appropriate security and confidentiality of the personal data, including for preventing unauthorised access to or use of personal data and the equipment used for the processing.
(49) The processing of personal data to the extent strictly necessary and proportionate for the purposes of ensuring network and information security, i.e. the ability of a network or an information system to resist, at a given level of confidence, accidental events or unlawful or malicious actions that compromise the availability, authenticity, integrity and confidentiality of stored or transmitted personal data, and the security of the related services offered by, or accessible via, those networks and systems, by public authorities, by computer emergency response teams (CERTs), computer security incident response teams (CSIRTs), by providers of electronic communications networks and services and by providers of security technologies and services, constitutes a legitimate interest of the data controller concerned. This could, for example, include preventing unauthorised access to electronic communications networks and malicious code distribution and stopping ‘denial of service’ attacks and damage to computer and electronic communication systems.
(75) The risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons, of varying likelihood and severity, may result from personal data processing which could lead to physical, material or non-material damage, in particular: where the processing may give rise to discrimination, identity theft or fraud, financial loss, damage to the reputation, loss of confidentiality of personal data protected by professional secrecy, unauthorised reversal of pseudonymisation, or any other significant economic or social disadvantage; where data subjects might be deprived of their rights and freedoms or prevented from exercising control over their personal data; where personal data are processed which reveal racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religion or philosophical beliefs, trade union membership, and the processing of genetic data, data concerning health or data concerning sex life or criminal convictions and offences or related security measures; where personal aspects are evaluated, in particular analysing or predicting aspects concerning performance at work, economic situation, health, personal preferences or interests, reliability or behaviour, location or movements, in order to create or use personal profiles; where personal data of vulnerable natural persons, in particular of children, are processed; or where processing involves a large amount of personal data and affects a large number of data subjects.
(83) In order to maintain security and to prevent processing in infringement of this Regulation, the controller or processor should evaluate the risks inherent in the processing and implement measures to mitigate those risks, such as encryption. Those measures should ensure an appropriate level of security, including confidentiality, taking into account the state of the art and the costs of implementation in relation to the risks and the nature of the personal data to be protected. In assessing data security risk, consideration should be given to the risks that are presented by personal data processing, such as accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorised disclosure of, or access to, personal data transmitted, stored or otherwise processed which may in particular lead to physical, material or non-material damage.
(85) A personal data breach may, if not addressed in an appropriate and timely manner, result in physical, material or non-material damage to natural persons such as loss of control over their personal data or limitation of their rights, discrimination, identity theft or fraud, financial loss, unauthorised reversal of pseudonymisation, damage to reputation, loss of confidentiality of personal data protected by professional secrecy or any other significant economic or social disadvantage to the natural person concerned. Therefore, as soon as the controller becomes aware that a personal data breach has occurred, the controller should notify the personal data breach to the supervisory authority without undue delay and, where feasible, not later than 72 hours after having become aware of it, unless the controller is able to demonstrate, in accordance with the accountability principle, that the personal data breach is unlikely to result in a risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons. Where such notification cannot be achieved within 72 hours, the reasons for the delay should accompany the notification and information may be provided in phases without undue further delay.
(162) Where personal data are processed for statistical purposes, this Regulation should apply to that processing. Union or Member State law should, within the limits of this Regulation, determine statistical content, control of access, specifications for the processing of personal data for statistical purposes and appropriate measures to safeguard the rights and freedoms of the data subject and for ensuring statistical confidentiality. Statistical purposes mean any operation of collection and the processing of personal data necessary for statistical surveys or for the production of statistical results. Those statistical results may further be used for different purposes, including a scientific research purpose. The statistical purpose implies that the result of processing for statistical purposes is not personal data, but aggregate data, and that this result or the personal data are not used in support of measures or decisions regarding any particular natural person.
(163) The confidential information which the Union and national statistical authorities collect for the production of official European and official national statistics should be protected. European statistics should be developed, produced and disseminated in accordance with the statistical principles as set out in Article 338(2) TFEU, while national statistics should also comply with Member State law. Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council (2) provides further specifications on statistical confidentiality for European statistics.
(f) processed in a manner that ensures appropriate security of the personal data, including protection against unauthorised or unlawful processing and against accidental loss, destruction or damage, using appropriate technical or organisational measures (‘integrity and confidentiality’).
(b) ensures that persons authorised to process the personal data have committed themselves to confidentiality or are under an appropriate statutory obligation of confidentiality;
(b) the ability to ensure the ongoing confidentiality, integrity, availability and resilience of processing systems and services;
5. The data protection officer shall be bound by secrecy or confidentiality concerning the performance of his or her tasks, in accordance with Union or Member State law.